The Bolshevik Revolution and Afghanistan (A case study of Afghan, Indian and Soviet Publications)

Abstract

In this paper an attempt is made to examine the impact of Russian Revolution of 1917 (popularly known as Bolshevik Revolution) on Central Asian Khanates, British India and particularly on Afghanistan. The Revolution was used by liberal, modernists and Marxists-Leninists as new platform for change in their respective countries. The Indian revolutionaries based in Kabul, Tashkent and tribal areas exploited this revolution for promoting their own anti British activities in Afghanistan. In a much broader context and in a wider perspective, however, the present study will encompass the following main issues: How and why the tug of war between the public and palace in Kabul changed into radical activities against the despotic monarch (Habibullah) and the British India? How geo-political crosscurrents in the surrounding region of Afghanistan and the intricacies of Russo-Afghan relations determine the parameters of covet and overt political activates of both Afghan and Indian revolutionaries in the traditional tribal society of Afghanistan for their own political gains. And how contesting ideologies of Pan-Islamism, Pan Afghanism, Pan-Turanism and Pan-Turkoism were interpreted in the Marxist-Leninist ideological bonanza by the educated elite of Afghanistan, Central Asia and India in their respective journals and booklets?

Fazal ur Rahim Marwat